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Messages

Messages in failure API can be set in 4 different ways:

  • By passing a message string explicitly - the simplest way; however, using locales is a cleaner solution even if you don't have a multi-language system
  • By passing a message identifier that will be used to retrieve a corresponding message template that will be evaluated using provided (optional) data
  • By passing a hash with message text and arbitrary meta-data - this can be useful when you want to provide additional information in addition to message text, ie error codes etc.

Examples in this section will use key failures exclusively, but keep in mind that the exact same API is available when you use base failures

Explicit messages

To set a failure message explicitly, pass a message string:

class NewUserContract < Dry::Validation::Contract
  params do
    required(:age).value(:integer)
  end

  rule(:age) do
    key.failure('must be greater than 18') if values[:age] < 18
  end
end

contract = NewUserContract.new

contract.call(age: 17).errors.to_h
# => {:age=>["must be greater than 18"]}

Passing additional meta-data

If you want to set additional meta-data, pass a hash with :text key:

class NewUserContract < Dry::Validation::Contract
  params do
    required(:age).value(:integer)
  end

  rule(:age) do
    key.failure(text: 'must be greater than 18', code: 123) if values[:age] < 18
  end
end

contract = NewUserContract.new

contract.call(age: 17).errors.to_h
# => {:age=>[{:text=>"must be greater than 18", :code=>123}]}

Using localized messages backend

If you enable the :i18n or :yaml messages backend in the configuration, you can define messages in a yaml file and use their identifiers instead of plain strings. Here's a sample yaml with a message for our age error:

en:
  dry_validation:
    errors:
      rules:
        age:
          invalid: 'must be greater than 18'

Provided we configure our contract to use a custom messages file, we can now write this:

class NewUserContract < Dry::Validation::Contract
  params do
    required(:age).value(:integer)
  end

  rule(:age) do
    key.failure(:invalid) if values[:age] < 18
  end
end

contract = NewUserContract.new

contract.call(age: 17).errors.to_h
# => {:age=>["must be greater than 18"]}

Using :full option with a translated key

If you want to have key names included in the generated messages, you can use full option. It requires you to include localized key names in your messages yaml config. Let's say you have a key called :name and you want it to appear as "First name":

en:
  dry_validation:
    rules:
      name: "First name"

Then, you can simply use the full option to get the key translated and included in error messages:

class NewUserContract < Dry::Validation::Contract
  params do
    required(:name).filled(:string)
  end
end

contract = NewUserContract.new

contract.call(name: "").errors(full: true).to_h
# => {:name=>["First name must be filled"]}
Info

Schema messages use the same top-level namespace as rule messages, remember about this if you want to customize messages for schema predicate failures.

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