Tracing failures

"Left" values of right-biased monads like Maybe and Result (as in, None() and Failure()) ignore blocks passed to fmap and bind. Because of this, these values travel across the application without any modification. If the place where a Failure was constructed is burried somewhere deep in the app or library code it may be pretty hard to find out where exactly the error occurred.

This is a noticable downside compared to "good" old exceptions. To address it, every Failure(...) and None() value tracks the line where it was created:

# create_user.rb
require 'dry/monads'

class CreateUser
  include Dry::Monads[:result]

  def call
require 'create_user'

create_user =
create_user.()       # => Failure(:no_luck)
create_user.().trace # => .../create_user.rb:8:in `call'

Note that the trace stores only one line of the stack so it shouldn't ever be a performance issue.

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