Sum

You can specify sum types using | operator, it is an explicit way of defining what the valid types of a value are.

For example dry-types defines the Bool type which is a sum consisting of the True and False types, expressed as Types::True | Types::False (and it has its strict version, too).

Another common case is defining that something can be either nil or something else:

nil_or_string = Types::Strict::Nil | Types::Strict::String

nil_or_string[nil] # => nil
nil_or_string["hello"] # => "hello"

nil_or_string[123] # raises Dry::Types::ConstraintError