dry-struct is a gem built on top of dry-types which provides virtus-like DSL for defining typed struct classes.

Basic Usage

You can define struct objects which will have readers for specified attributes using a simple dsl:

require 'dry-struct'

module Types
  include Dry::Types.module

class User < Dry::Struct
  attribute :name, Types::String.optional
  attribute :age, Types::Coercible::Int

user = nil, age: '21') # nil
user.age # 21

user = 'Jane', age: '21') # => "Jane"
user.age # => 21


You can define value objects which will behave like structs but will be deeply frozen:

class Location < Dry::Struct::Value
  attribute :lat, Types::Strict::Float
  attribute :lng, Types::Strict::Float

loc1 = 1.23, lng: 4.56)
loc2 = 1.23, lng: 4.56)

loc1.frozen? # true
loc2.frozen? # true

loc1 == loc2
# true

Constructor Types

Your struct class can specify a constructor type, which uses hash schemas to handle attributes in .new method. By default :permissive constructor is used.

To set a different constructor type simply use constructor_type setting:

class User < Dry::Struct
  constructor_type :strict

  attribute :name, Types::Strict::String
  attribute :age, Types::Strict::Int
end "Jane", age: 31)
# => #<User name="Jane" age=31> "Jane", age: 31, unexpected: "attribute")
# Dry::Struct::Error: [] unexpected keys [:unexpected] in Hash input

class Admin < Dry::Struct
  constructor_type :schema

  attribute :name, Types::Strict::String.default('John Doe')
  attribute :age, Types::Strict::Int
end "Jane")        #=> #<User name="Jane" age=nil> 31)             #=> #<User name="John Doe" age=31> nil, age: 31)  #=> #<User name="John Doe" age=31> "Jane", age: 31, unexpected: "attribute")
  #=> #<User name="Jane" age=31>

Common constructor types include:

  • :permissive - the default constructor type, useful for defining structs that are instantiated using data from the database (ie results of a database query), where you expect all defined attributes to be present and it’s OK to ignore other keys (ie keys used for joining, that are not relevant from your domain structs point of view). Default values are not used otherwise you wouldn’t notice missing data.
  • :schema - missing keys will result in setting them using default values, unexpected keys will be ignored.
  • :strict - useful when you do not expect keys other than the ones you specified as attributes in the input hash
  • :strict_with_defaults - same as :strict but you are OK that some values may be nil and you want defaults to be set
  • :weak and :symbolized - don’t use those with dry-struct, and instead use dry-validation to process and validate attributes, otherwise your struct will behave as a data validator which raises exceptions on invalid input (assuming your attributes types are strict)

Differences between dry-struct and virtus

dry-struct look somewhat similar to Virtus but there are few significant differences:

  • Structs don’t provide attribute writers and are meant to be used as “data objects” exclusively
  • Handling of attribute values is provided by standalone type objects from dry-types, which gives you way more powerful features
  • Handling of attribute hashes is provided by standalone hash schemas from dry-types, which means there are different types of constructors in dry-struct
  • Structs are not designed as swiss-army knifes, specific constructor types are used depending on the use case
  • Struct classes quack like dry-types, which means you can use them in hash schemas, as array members or sum them